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The simplest genophores are found in viruses: these DNA or RNA molecules are short linear or circular genophores that often lack structural proteins.

In a series of experiments beginning in the mid-1880s, Theodor Boveri gave the definitive demonstration that chromosomes are the vectors of heredity.

This structure is, however, dynamic and is maintained and remodeled by the actions of a range of histone-like proteins, which associate with the bacterial chromosome.

Bacterial chromosomes tend to be tethered to the plasma membrane of the bacteria.

Diagram of a replicated and condensedmetaphase eukaryotic chromosome.

(1)Chromatid – one of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA, protein, and RNA found in cells.

Boveri was able to test and confirm this hypothesis.

Eukaryotes (cells with nuclei such as those found in plants, yeast, and animals) possess multiple large linear chromosomes contained in the cell's nucleus.This allows the very long DNA molecules to fit into the cell nucleus.The structure of chromosomes and chromatin varies through the cell cycle.Also, cells may contain more than one type of chromosome; for example, mitochondria in mosteukaryotes and chloroplasts in plants have their own small chromosomes.In eukaryotes, nuclear chromosomes are packaged by proteins into a condensed structure called chromatin.

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