Matthew Jackson, an associate professor in UCSB's Department of Earth Science, and colleagues utilized high-precision lead and helium isotope measurements to unravel the chemical composition and geometry of the deep mantle plume feeding Samoa's volcanoes.
'Our goal was to figure out how we could use this distribution of volcano compositions at the surface to reverse-engineer how these components are distributed inside this upwelling mantle plume at depth,' Jackson said.'That tells us that most of this plume is primordial material and there are other materials hosted inside of this plume with low Helium-3, -4, and these are likely crustal materials sent into the mantle at ancient subduction zones.'The unique isotopic topology revealed by the researchers' analysis showed that the four low-helium endmembers do not mix efficiently with one another.
For over 25 years, Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA) has proudly served American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, and American Samoan youth.
Through Native Clubs, youth are provided with a safe place to learn and grow, ongoing relationships with caring adult professionals, life-enhancing programs, character development experiences, hope and opportunity.
In 1973, archaeology in Samoa uncovered a Lapita site at Mulifanua where 4,288 pottery sherds and two Lapita type adzes have been recovered.
Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century but did not intensify until the arrival of the British. The United States began operations at the excellent harbor of Pago Pago on Tutuila in 1877 and formed alliances with local native chieftains, most conspicuously on the islands of Tutuila and Manu'a (which were later formally annexed as American Samoa).The government's Samoa Shipping Corporation operates the ferry service, seven days a week, between Mulifanua and Salelologa at the east end of Savai'i island.A one-way trip between the two islands takes about 90 minutes.Mulifanua wharf is the main ferry terminal for inter-island vehicle and passenger travel across the Apolima Strait between Upolu and the island of Savai'i.The ferry terminal at Mulifanua wharf is five minutes west of Faleolo International Airport.